Diabetes is a disorder of sugar metabolism. Body cells need glucose to provide energy for their various activities-growths, maintenance, defense etc. The liver stores sugar in the form of glycogen and releases it as glucose when the body needs it. Glucose travels through the bloodstream and is absorbed from it by the body cells.
In a diabetic person, however, glucose is released into the bloodstream, but the cells are unable to absorb it for their use.
The diet for diabetic must necessarily preclude direct sugar and sweet food products like chocolates, cakes etc. Alcohol, which is very high in sugar contents, should be avoided. It is also recommended to avoid food high in starch and calories, like potatoes, dried nuts etc.
There are 2 main types of diabetes
1. DIABETES INSIPEDIUS
An uncommon disorder in which excess urine is formed due to failure of the pituitary gland's hormonal secretion antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The primary defect may be in the pituitary gland itself or in the hypothalamus, the part of the brain floor that controls secretion of the hormone. This defect is corrected by giving ADH by injection or snuff or nasal drops
2. DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes mellitus or simply diabetes is the result of a deficiency of insulin. The deficiency can be caused in more than one way; hence diabetes is a group of diseases with similar symptoms, and not a single disease. The effects of diabetes are far reaching.
There could be excess of glucose in the blood, overflow of glucose into urine, and increased volume of urine to carry the glucose. Because glucose cannot be burnt, fat is burnt instead and the patient loses weight.
Diabetes is also susceptible to disease of large arteries with its complications such as angina. This may due to disturbed fat chemistry.